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WHI Investigator Meeting, May 5-6 (in person)

Join us for an in person investigator meeting at the Hilton Dulles Washington Airport in Herndon, VA on May 5th & 6th!

Registration and additional information can be found here:

Please register and book your hotel room by April 13th at midnight (ET) in order to secure a hotel booking under our current meeting rate.

This ​year’s ​meeting ​will ​highlight ​future ​directions ​in ​WHI, ​cover ​a ​range ​of ​topics ​of ​interest to ​researchers, ​and ​provide ​an ​opportunity ​for ​investigators ​to ​meet, ​interact, ​and ​share ​their ​insights. The agenda is available here

Please contact Allie Silverman ( and/or Lindsey Bull ( if you have any questions about this year’s meeting.

The COcoa Supplement and Multivitamin Outcomes Study (COSMOS) intervention phase ended in December, 2020. Among the 21,442 participants in COSMOS, 4,611 were recruited from the WHI. The Women’s Health Initiative will be hosting a webinar for our WHI Investigator Community, presenting primary results from the main COSMOS study, as well as the COSMOS-Mind ancillary study. The webinar will include formal presentations followed by Q&A, and discussions of future research and manuscript opportunities. We strongly encourage you to take advantage of this event and block the time on your calendars. The WHI CCC will be sending out formal invitations in the near future.

Principal Results of the COcoa Supplement and Multivitamin Outcomes Study (COSMOS) on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer, and of COSMOS-Mind on Cognition

March 29th, 2022, 11:00am-12:30pm PT (2:00-3:30pm ET)

See related papers

Results from the COSMOS Main Study JoAnn Manson and Howard Sesso
Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Results from the COSMOS-Mind Ancillary StudyLaura Baker
Wake Forest School of Medicine

On Thursday, March 3rd, from 10:00am-2:30pm PST, a symposium on menopausal health will be offered, titled “Taking Charge of Your Magnificent Menopause.” Hosted by the University of California at San Diego’s Center for Life Course and Vulnerable Population Research, presentations will include a discussion of the WHI-affiliated Menopause Strategies: Finding Lasting Answers for Symptoms and Health (MsFLASH) Study, among others.

This symposium is offered free and is open to the general public, with options for both virtual and in-person (San Diego area) attendance. To learn more about this event, please view the flyer.

Investigators from COSMOS-Mind, a National Institute on Aging-funded ancillary study of the WHI-affiliated COcoa Supplement and Multivitamin Outcomes Study (COSMOS) based at Wake Forest University, presented their initial findings at the Clinical Trials on Alzheimer’s Disease meeting on November 10th, 2021. COSMOS-Mind followed 2,262 participants over the course of three years, examining the effects of cocoa extract and a multivitamin on cognitive function.

Daily multivitamin use was found to improve cognitive function, as participants taking the multivitamin had higher cognitive test scores after 3 years than those participants who took the placebo. Cocoa extract did not have significant effects on cognition. It is noted, however, that separate studies are ongoing which continue to dig more deeply into the effects of both cocoa extract and multivitamins on different aspects of cognition.

These findings are the first to be presented from COSMOS. The main trial findings about the effects of the study supplements on cardiovascular disease and cancer will be available later in 2021 or early in 2022.

For more information, please review study communications sent to COSMOS-Mind participants and all COSMOS participants.

The NIH Office of Research on Women’s Health is hosting “Advancing NIH Research on the Health of Women: A 2021 Conference.” Conducted virtually on Wednesday, October 20th beginning at 9:00am ET/6:00am PT, the focus of the meeting will address three topics in particular: 1) clinical practices related to rising maternal morbidity and mortality rates; 2) increasing rates of chronic debilitating conditions in women; and 3) stagnant cervical cancer survival rates.

Learn more about this conference by viewing the agenda and welcome letter, and register here.

On September 30th, the WHI CCC published a new release of the WHI investigator datasets, which include data through March 6, 2021. Please review the current WHI Data Preparation and Use document and WHI data dictionaries for additional details. Data are available to download with an approved Data Use Agreement; learn about applying for access to utilize WHI data.

Changes in the latest full release (Data as of March 6, 2021; Released September 30, 2021)

Website Updates

  • Data file categories on our website (WHI Data Dictionaries) have been reorganized to make finding data dictionaries for investigator datasets easier and more intuitive.
  • With approved data access, it is no longer necessary to visit the WHI SharePoint site to download investigator datasets. Data users have two options to download data:
    • Click on individual download icons in each row on the data dictionaries page to download a single dataset; or
    • Click on the “Download All Data” option below the datasets table to download all investigator data (file size, ~1GB).

In both cases, users will still be asked to provide their WHI username and password through a pop-up dialog box; the login process is identical to that for SharePoint, but only needs to be performed once per session.

New Datasets

  • Form 151B – Activities of Daily Life (f151b_ctos_inv) – this questionnaire, along with Form 151A (not yet implemented), replaces Form 151 for most participants after this release. It includes constructed variables using standard scales for daily activity, optimism, life events, purpose, personal growth and depression. See below for additional information on the F151 dataset.
  • Supplemental Questionnaire Response Status (supp_form_status) – this data release includes a new file containing denominator variables for Forms 155-159 to aid in determining which participants were eligible for the corresponding form.

Updated Datasets

  • All outcomes and Extension Study follow-up datasets are updated through March 6, 2021.
  • Additional specimen test results have been added to the Specimen Results Descriptions and to the four “spec-“ data files in the Specimen Results category.
  • Aging (survival) variables (outc_aging_ctos_inv) – additional variables for survival to age 80 have been added.
  • Extension Study 2, Self Reported outcome files (outc_self_x2_src_inv and outc_self_x2_mrc_inv) – moderate/severe memory problems and Alzheimer’s were separated on version 13 of Form 33. The F33ALZHEIMERS variable has been corrected to include report of both moderate/severe memory problems and Alzheimer’s, consistent with previous versions of Form 33.
  • Demographics and Study Membership (dem_ctos_inv) – a new DbGap consent field has been added; WHI Extension Membership flags have been moved to this file and the WHI Extension Membership file has been dropped.
  • Form 41 Imputed Race and Ethnicity (f41_imputed_ctos_inv) – the category “Yes, unspecified Spanish/Hispanic/Latina” was added to the ETHNICITY_IMPUTED variable. A new variable UNSPECASIAN_IMPUTED was also added. See the dataset documentation for details.
  • Form 151 (f151_ctos_inv) – Form 151 is currently being used instead of Form 151B (and in the future, Form 151A) when a proxy is completing the annual forms. Analyses using the set of variables common to both forms need to include the variables from both dataset

The COVID-19 Survey 1 dataset was released on 8/6/21.  The dataset (f190_covid1_inv.dat) includes all surveys returned by 12/31/2020.  Access to the dataset is granted after a paper proposal has been approved by the P&P committee and a data use agreement signed. Please view the data dictionary to learn more.

The WHI Clinical Coordinating Center is pleased to announce that it was selected as the recipient of a COVID-19 Response Grant, an award funded by the Andy Hill CARE Fund, the Washington State-sponsored cancer research endowment named in honor the late state senator. COVID-19 Response Grants “seek to advance research at the intersection of COVID-19 and cancer.”

During the second half of 2020, the WHI study distributed an initial COVID-19 survey to participants, seeking information concerning the pandemic’s effects on health care access and utilization, COVID-19 testing, quality of life and mental health, and adherence to recommended public health measures. With the financial assistance provided by the COVID-19 Response Grant, a follow-up survey is set to be distributed beginning early this summer, in which newly formulated questions will be asked pertaining to vaccination status, along with access to and potential delays in obtaining medical care, including cancer diagnosis and treatment services. As the CARE Fund notes, “this information will help determine successes and failures in protecting the elderly from the pandemic’s impact on cancer screening and treatment and on broader health needs of this large and vulnerable population and guiding interventions to promote vaccination.”

Dr. Lucille Adams-Campbell, Ph.D., of Georgetown University and WHI Investigator at the Washington, D.C.-area MedStar clinical site, has been named the recipient of the Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr., Distinguished Achievement Award by the The American Society of Preventive Oncology. Conferred annually, this highly prestigious award recognizes an “outstanding scientist in the area of preventive oncology, cancer control, and/or cancer prevention.”

The first African-American woman to receive a Ph.D. in epidemiology in the United States, Dr. Adams-Campbell presently serves as the Associate Director of Minority Health and Health Disparities Research, Senior Associate Dean for Community Outreach and Engagement, and Professor of Oncology at Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center at Georgetown University Medical Center. Additionally, she serves as the Principal Investigator of the Center for Excellence for Health Disparities and co-Principal Investigator of the 25-year Black Women’s Health Study.

In announcing the award, the Society notes that Dr. Adams-Campbell has “dedicated her career to studying cancer disparities experienced by African-Americans,” resulting in more than 200 peer-reviewed publications and international renown as an expert in minority health and health disparities research.

Despite being the fastest-growing minority group in the United States, Hispanics are routinely underrepresented in scientific and public health studies. Along with other minority groups, Hispanics face challenges – both structural and socioeconomic – that are generally understood to correlate with poor health outcomes. However, the literature to date finds that Hispanics actually experience better health and greater longevity than non-Hispanics, including non-Hispanic Whites, in spite of the disadvantages. Scholars hypothesize that cultural factors may serve to moderate the harms that would ordinarily come from the structural and socioeconomic risk factors experienced by Hispanics.

Researchers, led by Dr. Melissa Flores of the University of Arizona, specifically examined whether marriage yielded an enhancing effect on the mortality advantage among Hispanic women. Previous research has more broadly identified a reliably strong relationship between marriage or marriage-like relationships and lower mortality and better economic outcomes. Dr. Flores and colleagues utilized the longitudinal data from WHI clinical trial and observational study participants (N = 158,814), specifically using the participant’s reported marital status at baseline along with WHI-collected outcomes data to ascertain mortality. The authors studied 1) whether Hispanic ethnicity was protective when compared to other race-ethnicities; and 2) whether marriage or marriage-like relationships among Hispanic women were found to be protective factors against mortality.

The analyses, which utilized models with varying controls for socioeconomic and health factors, indicated that postmenopausal Hispanic women experience a mortality advantage over other race-ethnicity groups except that of Asians/Pacific Islanders, among which mortality was found to be similar. On the other hand, the authors found no significant relationship between marital status and mortality specifically among Hispanic women included the analysis, contrary to the more generalized findings previously reported. Among both Hispanics and Asians/Pacific Islanders, the authors discuss the potentially positive impacts of collectivism and respect for elders, which may serve to enhance mortality advantages. In Hispanic societies specifically, it is noted that social and family networks are strongly maintained and valued, and are mobilized in times of need, which could be hypothesized to confer similar advantages to those observed in marriage. The authors conclude that additional study of resiliency factors among Hispanic populations may be beneficial.

These findings were published on January 15, 2021 in the Annals of Behavioral Medicine.

Mr. Scott Davis is retiring after 32 years of dedicated service to Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the vast majority during which he served as the network administrator for the WHI Clinical Coordinating Center (CCC). Mr. Davis is credited with bringing the WHI study online in the early 1990s, equipping and internetworking the study’s 50 sites – including the CCC, regional centers, and clinical sites – a truly monumental task by the standards of the time.

At a time where many of us were just starting to dial in to the internet, Mr. Davis was building and deploying large-scale turnkey e-mail, file server, database, and private networking solutions that allowed for the secure transfer of sensitive participant data, reliable communications, and file sharing throughout the study. This incredible undertaking was chronicled by a Fred Hutch News article, published in 1995.

Fred Hutch News article excerpt.
Excerpt from Fred Hutch News article, published in 1995, describing the complex undertaking of building the networking and data WHI infrastructure. Click image to expand.

Beyond the deployment and maintenance of the critical technology infrastructure underlying the study, Mr. Davis led efforts to bring the study onto the World Wide Web, leading numerous campaigns over the years to design and continuously improve the study’s online presence, addressing the distinct challenges of engaging researchers, communicating with study participants, and educating the general public about the continuing important work WHI does.

Outside of his work at the WHI, Mr. Davis is an avid world traveler, particularly enjoying time spent in the South American nations of Argentina and Chile. He is also a highly accomplished pianist and dancer, including tango.

Those who worked closely with Mr. Davis will deeply miss his leadership, ability to successfully decipher future technology trends, strongly intellectual sense of humor, and the capability to skillfully navigate the technical and regulatory thickets inherent to his line of work.

Accolades from study leadership

Former chief of the WHI Branch in the Division of Cardiovascular Sciences at the Institute (NHLBI), Jacques Rossouw MB.ChB., F.C.P. (S.A.), M.D., reflects on Scott’s long tenure with WHI noting particularly “his sterling work in establishing and maintaining the WHI computing infrastructure [and] his unfailing willingness to help.”  “I personally appreciate his loyalty to the program. I also appreciate the several occasions on which he helped me find a new password when I had forgotten my old one, and then he would come up with a new temporary password which was so clever and funny that I kept it! He can go off into a well deserved retirement with his head held high – he will be fondly remembered as one who made a difference.”

NHLBI WHI Project Officer Shari Ludlam, M.P.H, writes that “Scott was the mastermind behind many iterations of the WHI IT infrastructure, and ensured that the study was able to carry on with WHI business no matter the circumstances.  [While] writing WHI’s voluminous IT system security plan [Scott] carefully thought through a multitude of disaster scenarios that never occurred to me (catastrophic earthquake in Seattle?  It *could* happen!) and meticulously planned potential responses, while weighing the costs and benefits of the solutions.  Scott’s contributions to WHI have been monumental, and I wish him nothing but smooth sailing and only routine household network maintenance in this next phase of life.  Cheers, Scott, we will miss you!”

WHI CCC Principal Investigator Garnet Anderson, Ph.D. wrote about Mr. Davis’s long and highly accomplished tenure with Fred Hutch and the WHI study. “In 1992, Scott was the primary architect of the original computing infrastructure for WHI–infamously called a ‘Star Wars’ computing system at our initial site visit by someone who was disgruntled with our proposal. In fact, what was asked of him seemed rather absurd– we needed him to define the technology and associated budget for this nationwide 15-year, $600 million project. His claim to fame in-house at that point was that he had set up the first local area network in Fred Hutch. But he has proven himself time and time again. His ability to stay attuned to both the program needs and the many technological advances and thereby keep our systems on track has been incredibly valuable. He has also been a driver, willing to take necessary risks and buck the system to get things done. While this didn’t make him popular with everyone all the time, he always had the best interests of the program and his staff in mind and for that, I am so grateful. I have appreciated getting to know him over the last 32 years–we started at Fred Hutch within a month of each other so I was one of his guinea pigs on that first network. But it has taken that long to appreciate what a renaissance man he is, with many hidden talents and interests. I hope he has a chance to pursue them with full intensity and energy now.”

Former WHI CCC Principal Investigator Ross Prentice, Ph.D. writes, “I knew Scott a little from his work in our [Fred Hutch] Cancer Prevention Program around 1990, prior to the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). Then he was one of a handful of colleagues who made it possible for us to mount a proposal for the Clinical Coordinating Center (CCC) for the massive WHI program. Our CCC data management proposal, developed mainly by Scott and Garnet Anderson, was innovative for the time and rather expensive, in part due to wired network connections between the CCC and more than 50 sites around the country. I recall, as initial CCC PI, that I was asked to come to Bethesda to discuss program start-up with NIH leaders. My attitude, not necessarily to be recommended, was to assume that NIH was fortunate to have our group in this coordination role, so when I was asked about the ‘Star Wars data management system’ I simply said, ‘Oh, I don’t know much about that, you should ask Scott or Garnet.’ They weren’t impressed, but after a few minutes of silence they moved on to the next topic, and subsequently received answers that convinced them concerning the planned data management approach.

Actually the Star Wars system served very well for quite a few years until internet software and security provisions improved enough to allow a somewhat simpler network for WHI. Scott worked hard, arranged for all needed network and communications changes and developments over the 28 years (so far) of the WHI program. Even when data, communication, and specimen security plans required several hundreds of pages of documentation for funding renewal, Scott did the necessary work, on time and with good humor. He made a big difference for the CCC and for WHI as a whole, and we shall be always grateful for his insight and dedication. Enjoy retirement, Scott.”

The WHI Clinical Coordinating Center (CCC) and four Regional Centers (RCs) have received contract extensions from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), securing continued funding through most of this decade.

Nearly two decades following publication of WHI’s landmark clinical trial findings, the collection of participant questionnaire data continues, thanks in very large part to the ongoing efforts and dedication of WHI participants, today ranging between 72 and 103 years of age! WHI’s enormous trove of existing data and available biospecimens continues to fuel numerous innovative paper and ancillary study proposals. The CCC and RCs also continue to support several large affiliated studies, including WHISH, WHISPER, the COSMOS Trial, and LILAC.

For additional information, please see the press releases below:

African Americans have a disproportionately higher rate of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and incidence compared to their non-Hispanic white counterparts. This disparity persists even after accounting for health and lifestyle factors associated with CHD, leading Dr. Hyacinth I. Hyacinth of the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and his team to question whether underlying genetic factors, in particular, sickle cell trait might contribute. Sickle cell trait occurs when an individual inherits one copy of a normal adult hemoglobin gene and one copy of the sickle cell variant from their parents. The prevalence of sickle cell trait in African Americans is about 8%, but 20-35% in Africans. While inheriting two sickle cell variants from each parent results in sickle cell disease, being a carrier of one copy of the variant has been generally regarded as benign. However, emerging research has suggested potential associations between sickle cell trait in African Americans and adverse clinical outcomes, such as chronic kidney disease, elevated C-reative protein levels, pulmonary embolism and even sudden death.

Given the recent associations found between between sickle cell trait and various biomarkers for cardiovascular disease, Dr. Hyacinth and his collaborators conducted an analysis to examine whether sickle cell trait was associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and CHD. They evaluated 23,197 African Americans from five large, population-based cohort studies, including 5,904 women from the WHI study. In their analysis, which included examining data from each study separately as well as combining the data from all five studies, they found that African American individuals with sickle cell trait did not have a higher incidence of MI or CHD and concluded these cardiovascular disorders might not be related to sickle cell trait-related sudden death.

This study was published in JAMA Network Open in January 2021.

Electra Paskett, Ph.D., WHI Principal Investigator and the Marion N. Rowley Professor of Cancer Research at The Ohio State University, had done everything right. As a three-time survivor of breast cancer, once the COVID-19 pandemic struck the United States, she knew it was particularly important to safeguard her health. Like so many of us, Dr. Paskett committed to undertaking all the recommended measures prescribed by public health experts: staying home as much as possible; employing good hygiene through routine handwashing; and, when it was necessary to leave home, donning a mask and remaining conscientious about maintaining physical distance from others.

Despite her best efforts to remain safe, Dr. Paskett came down with COVID-19 last fall, ultimately requiring a five-day hospital stay. In a guest editorial to The Cancer Letter, she movingly chronicles her experience with the virus, from onset of symptoms, to hospitalization, to discharge. She reminds us that recovery from COVID-19 is not always straightforward as, like some patients, she faced aftereffects including “brain fog” and positional orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). In presenting her experience, Dr. Paskett lists several lessons she learned along the way that may prove helpful to others confronted with a positive COVID-19 test.

A new study led by Dr. Diana Younan at the University of Southern California used data from the WHI Memory Study of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WHIMS-MRI) to investigate whether fine particulate matter contributes to brain changes predictive of Alzheimer’s Disease. A total of 712 WHI women who had two MRI scans, one in 2005-6 and the other in 2010-11, were longitudinally analyzed. The scans were assigned a score based on patterns of grey matter atrophy that is used as an early biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease. Air pollution was measured in the form of particulate matter (<2.5 micrometer) exposure and identified using the participant’s home addresses and spatiotemporal modeling that includes data from the US EPA Air Quality System. Dr. Younan and her team found that long term exposure to particulate matter was associated with neuroanatomical changes that increase risk for Alzheimer’s Disease by 24% over five years, even after accounting for demographic, health behaviors, and possible cerebrovascular damage. Their study provides support that particulate matter is associated with neurodegeneration.

These findings were published in the November 18th, 2020 edition of Neurology.

While physical activity has been shown to decrease the risk of hypertension, the impacts of walking on hypertension risk is unclear. Furthermore, studies in older women are sparse despite high levels of hypertension and the popularity of walking as a form of exercise in this population. For his Epidemiology Master of Science thesis, Mr. Connor Miller examined whether walking volume (characterized by frequency, duration, and intensity) and speed was associated with incident hypertension among over 83,000 WHI women followed an average of 11 years. Information about walking and hypertension was collected by survey. Women were placed into 1 of 4 groups based on levels of walking volume (0, >0-3.5, 3.6-7.5, and >7.5 metabolic equivalent hours per week) and speed (<2, 2-3, 3-4, >4 miles per hour). Their analysis found that as walking volume and speed increased, the risk of hypertension decreased. Specifically, the risk of hypertension relative to non-walkers was 0.89 lower in women with the highest walking volume and 0.79 lower among the fastest walkers, even after accounting for covariates such as smoking, diet, and other chronic conditions. The authors concluded that walking should be encouraged as a hypertension prevention strategy in older women.

JoAnn E. Manson, M.D., M.P.H., Dr.P.H., Chief of the Division of Preventive Medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Professor of Medicine and the Michael and Lee Bell Professor of Women’s Health at Harvard Medical School, and Professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, received the American Heart Association’s (AHA’s) Research Achievement Award at the AHA’s annual Scientific Sessions on November 14, 2020 for outstanding career contributions to cardiovascular research.  Described as “one of AHA’s most distinguished and historic honors”, the Research Achievement Award recognized Manson’s exceptional contributions to population science research, especially in the field of women’s cardiovascular health.

Dr. Manson is a long-term WHI principal investigator (Boston site) and a member of the WHI Steering Committee. She is also a leader or co-leader of several other research studies, including the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL); the COcoa Supplement and Multivitamin Outcomes Study (COSMOS); the cardiovascular component of the Nurses’ Health Study; and the KEEPS trial (clinical center in Boston). Her primary research interests include randomized clinical prevention trials of nutritional and lifestyle factors related to heart disease and type 2 diabetes, biomarker predictors of outcomes, and the role of endogenous and exogenous estrogens as determinants of chronic disease in women.

The faculty and staff of the Women’s Health Initiative are deeply saddened to share news of the loss of Susannah Belding, Outcomes Coordinator at the WHI Western Regional Center at Stanford University. Susannah passed away from ovarian cancer on October 16th, 2020.   She fought her disease with her usual grace and dignity up till the end.  Susannah first learned of another recurrence of her ovarian cancer, which she had dealt with in a milder form over eight years ago, on the day before her 50th birthday last July.  Within two weeks, she had learned that it had advanced to a serious life-threatening stage. 

Susannah started working on the Women’s Health Initiative in 2011. She spoke with many, many participants and their proxies from all our clinics (Stanford University, University of California – Davis, University of Nevada – Reno, University of Hawaii, University of California – Los Angeles, Torrance, University of California – Irvine, University of Arizona, and Portland) over the past nine years which she enjoyed immensely. 

Susannah was a very kind, caring person who was loved by all of us and we will all sorely miss her. This brings to focus why we do research and how valuable it is to study and learn from our participants who have challenged cancer.

The School of Public Health (SPH) recently marked its 50th year at the the University of Washington, and in celebration has named “50 Changemakers of Public Health,” a distinction bestowed upon 50 SPH alumni whose work has left an indelible mark on the field. The SPH notes that these alumni represent “leaders, trailblazers, educators, innovators, influencers, and health equity heroes that represent just a slice of the School’s community of more than 10,000 alumni worldwide who are addressing some of the most pressing population health issues of our time.”

Among the alumni named was Dr. Garnet Anderson, principal investigator of the WHI Clinical Coordinating Center and Senior Vice President and Division Director of Public Health Sciences at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. Dr. Anderson graduated from the SPH in 1989 with a Ph.D. in biostatistics, and has served in the leadership of the landmark WHI study since 1994. In naming Dr. Anderson, the SPH specifically cites her co-leadership of the initiative’s trial of estrogen and progestin therapy, along with the development of WHI’s vast epidemiological data resources and biorepository, which continue to aid researchers in conducting studies into chronic disease risk factors and prevention.

Age-related physiologic and social changes to eating has been shown to affect diet and nutrition-related diseases, but it is not known whether these changes also affect physical function. A team of WHI researchers led by Dr. Marian Neuhouser examined the relationship of eating barriers on physical function in a subset of 5,910 WHI participants. Eating barriers were both psychosocial-related (i.e., eating alone, poor eating frequency, or financial burdens to obtaining food) and physical (i.e., dentition problems or physical difficulties with cooking or shopping) and were collected by a questionnaire developed by the Nutrition and Energy Balance Scientific Interest Group. Physical function was collected during an in-person clinic visit and included grip strength and components of the Short Physical Performance Battery – a balance test, timed walking speed, and a chair stand test.

Their results showed that all the barriers to eating, with the exception of eating alone, were associated with lower physical functioning. Furthermore, as the number of eating barriers a participant had increased, her level of physical functioning decreased. Since poor physical function is highly predictive of future health events and mortality, these findings emphasize the importance of addressing health and nutrition concerns related to eating and physical functioning in older women.

These findings were published in Preventative Medicine in October 2020.

Updated WHI Investigator Datasets are now available! The data release includes Outcomes and Extension Study follow-up data through February 28, 2020, as well as updated Specimen Results datasets. Additionally, Form 159 data is now available, including a repeat of the sleep disturbance construct, new variables related to symptoms, medications for hypertension and cholesterol, current weight, and age-related macular degeneration.

Dr. Garnet Anderson, principal investigator of the WHI Clinical Coordinating Center and Senior Vice President and Division Director of Public Health Sciences at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington, was named as a 2020 Fellow of the American Statistical Association (ASA). Fellowship with the ASA is bestowed only upon a very small percentage of the ASA membership on the basis of the candidate’s established reputation and ongoing outstanding contributions to statistical science.

A recent analysis led by Dr. Victor Eng examined nearly 90,000 WHI Observational Study participants to determine the association between smoking history and cancer screening use. Among the women in the study, 53% never smoked, 41% were former smokers, and 6% were current smokers. They discovered that over a mean 8.8 years of follow-up, active smokers were less likely to have obtained a breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening relative to women who never smoked. As a consequence of having lower cancer screening usage, women who were active smokers were diagnosed with a higher stages for breast and colorectal cancers. Women who were former smokers were found to have higher usage of breast and cervical cancer screening services compared to those who never smoked. The authors recommend that clinicians emphasize both the use of cancer screening services and smoking cessation for this high-risk group.

This manuscript was published in BMJ Open in August 2020.

WHI researcher, Dr. Marian Neuhouser, has been appointed to the Food and Nutrition Board. The Food and Nutrition Board was established in 1940 within the Health and Medicine Division of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. It researches issues related to the U.S. food supply, aids in the development of healthy nutrition guidelines, and evaluates the relationships between consumption, nutrition, and health maintenance and disease prevention. Dr. Neuhouser’s appointment is for a 3-year term, beginning July 1, 2020.

For women aged 65 and older, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommends a bone mineral density, or BMD, measurement to screen for osteoporosis. For younger women, a BMD measurement is recommended for those at higher risk for osteoporosis. There are however no recommendations about the frequency of BMD testing owing to lack of research.

To address this, a team of WHI investigators led by Carolyn Crandall examined the added contribution of repeating a BMD test 3-years after a baseline BMD measurement was collected. In their analysis of nearly 7,500 WHI participants, they found that a follow-up BMD measurement did not improve fracture risk discrimination beyond the baseline BMD assessment. Recognizing that BMD scans uses resources, they concluded that follow-up BMD testing should not be routinely performed in postmenopausal women.

Dr. Crandall’s manuscript was published in JAMA Internal Medicine in July 2020.

Earlier findings published by WHI investigators identified an increased risk of developing breast cancer among clinical trial participants without prior hysterectomy who had received treatment with combination estrogen-plus-progestin hormone replacement therapy over a median of 5.6 years. Conversely, trial participants with prior hysterectomy who underwent estrogen-only therapy for a median of 7.2 years experienced a reduced risk for developing breast cancer. Prior analyses, conducted in 2013 and 2015, noted that these effects endured over a median cumulative follow-up period of 13 years for both therapies.

A recent follow-up analysis, led by WHI investigator Rowan Chlebowski, found that after more than 20 years of median follow-up, the protective effects of estrogen-alone therapy continued to endure, as did the increased risks for developing breast cancer attributed to estrogen-plus-progestin therapy. Despite many years having passed since withdrawal of hormone treatment, the investigators attributed the lasting impacts of each therapy to altered cellular processes in breast tissue affecting cell death (apoptosis). While estrogen-alone therapy is presently not indicated as a prophylaxis for breast cancer due to prior findings suggesting increased risk of stroke and potential influences on hormone-targeted drugs, the authors indicate that other factors may be involved and recommend further work in this arena.

Decisions pertaining to the use and selection of hormone-replacement therapy should be undertaken in partnership with a qualified medical professional and should take into account the numerous personal and health history factors that may influence the benefit/risk calculation of utilizing a particular treatment course.

These findings were published in JAMA in July 2020.

In early July 2020, the National Institute on Aging announced findings linking vision impairment to enhanced risk of developing dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The study enlisted the participation and study data from 1,061 participants enrolled in the WHI Sight Examination and WHI Memory Study cohorts, and was conducted over the course of the past 20 years.

The study found that risk of cognitive impairment could be correlated with worsening of visual impairment, with the highest risk found among women whose (n = 183) objectively measured vision acuity threshold was 20/100 or worse, followed by 20/80 or worse, then 20/40 or worse. The study also included 206 women who self-reported visual impairment, but it was found that self-reported impairment was not associated with an increased risk for dementia. The investigators note that further research is necessary to identify how specific ophthalmic interventions may influence risk for developing dementia or MCI.

These findings were published in JAMA Ophthalmology in April 2020.

COVID-19 presents an evolving world-wide health and economic crisis.  Many WHI participants are in a high-risk group for experiencing the serious health consequences of this novel coronavirus pandemic if infected. In keeping with the WHI mission to address the major health concerns of older women, the WHI Steering Committee determined that it is critical to assess the impact of this pandemic in the WHI population.  Information from these well-characterized older women could significantly add to the science broadly on the epidemiology of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and adverse outcomes, knowledge and practice of preventive measures, and the impact of social distancing on quality of life. Recognizing that this is a fast moving and complex situation, the WHI Steering Committee approved the development and implementation of a survey instrument to be administered online for WHI participants with email access, and mailed surveys otherwise, augmented with telephone-based interviews for a selected subset of participants, in the June-August 2020.  The survey is meant to stimulate rapid reports on the impact of SARS-CoV-2 and support new ancillary studies within our cohort of women currently 70 years and older.  The RFPs for manuscript proposals or ancillary studies for COVID-19 related research provide additional details. Investigators with interest in these data who missed the June 24 deadline for manuscript proposals may consider applying for access through the usual P&P approval process.  Finally, the WHI will be sponsoring a Scientific Interest Group (SIG), open to all interested researchers, that will seek to catalyze discussion and formation of new study and paper proposals around COVID-19-related research topics.

Dr. Wactawski-Wende is the PI of one of the original 16 vangard WHI clinics since 1993.

“Dr. Wactawski-Wende has made seminal contributions that have significantly impacted health care practice and disease prevention for women in the U.S. and around the world,”
University of Buffalo President Satish K. Tripathi 

Read more…

An article summarizing this recently published paper by Kerryn W. Reding PhD, MPH, RN et al. appeared in

The Steering Committee has decided to postpone the May 6-7 meeting because of uncertainties regarding the COVID-19 outbreak. In lieu of an in-person meeting, there will be a series of webinars offered, which will include updates on some of the major WHI-affiliated studies. This series begins Monday, April 27th.  Please see below for a complete schedule of presentations and speakers.  If you have questions, please contact Ellen Kim at the Clinical Coordinating Center.

For those unable to attend, it is expected that videos of the presentations will be posted to the website.

Webinar Schedule 

All times Pacific Daylight Time

​Date and Time ​Presentations and Speakers
(slide decks posted, if available)
Videos and Chat Transcripts
​Monday, April 27th
11:00am-12:00 noon
​LILAC (Garnet Anderson, Bette Caan, and Electra Paskett)
Video (1:18:37)
Chat Transcript (PDF)
​Wednesday, May 6th
​WHIMS (Steve Rapp) and WHISPER (Laura Baker)*
Video (1:23:00)
Chat Transcript (PDF)
​Thursday, May 7th
​WHISH (Marcia Stefanick) and OPACH (Andrea LaCroix)*

Video (1:31:56)
Chat Transcript (PDF)
​Thursday, June 11th
​COSMOS (JoAnn Manson and Howie Sesso) and
WHI COVID-19 Study Update
(Garnet Anderson and Sally Shumaker)

Video (0:46:42)
Chat Transcript (PDF)

*These webinars will also incorporate poster presentations from abstracts originally submitted for the 2020 meeting.

Poster Abstracts Selected for Webinar Presentation

Please click here to read the selected poster abstracts.

Date of PresentationPresenterInstitutionTitle
April 27Tracy E. CraneUniversity of ArizonaDietary Patterns and Fatigue after a Cancer Diagnosis: Results for Women’s Health Initiative
April 27Mandana Kamgar, MD, MPHDepartment of Medicine, Division of Oncology, Medical College of WisconsinPeripheral Neuropathy after Breast Cancer: an Analysis of Data from the Women’s Health Initiative Life and Longevity After Cancer Cohort.
May 6Emily Gower and Jonathan FixUNCRisk Factors for Missed Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination amongst Participants in the Women’s Health Initiative
May 6Kathleen HaydenWake HealthClonal Hematopoiesis of Indeterminate Potential and the Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment or Probable Dementia in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study
May 6Iris Leng, MD, PhDWake ForestIs there an association between baseline macro nutrients intake and changes in cognition? Results from the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS)
May 6Margaret L. ScalesWake ForestWomen’s Health Initiative Sleep HyPoxia Effects on Resilience (WHISPER): Consent and Sleep Assessment Enrollment and Retention Success.
May 6Chrisandra Shufelt, MD, MS, FACP, NCMP Bilateral Oophorectomy vs Ovarian Conservation at the Time of Hysterectomy and All-cause Mortality: Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS)
May 7Anna Batorsky / Nora FranceschiniNHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Consortium; TOPMed MESA Multi-Omics Working GroupDifferential DNA Methylation associated with kidney function across three ethnic groups.
May 7Bernhard HaringUniversity of Wurzburg, GermanyBlood Pressure Variability and Risk of Heart Failure in Postmenopausal Women. Results from the Women’s Health Initiative
May 7Purva JainUCSDStanding time with and without ambulation and mortality over 6 years of follow-up: the WHI OPACH Study
May 7Marian Neuhouser / Lesley TinkerFHCRCUnderstanding the role of nutrition in health promotion and disease prevention in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) using biomarkers
May 7Benjamin T. Schumacher, MPH Accelerometer-Measured Daily Steps and Incident Fall Risk in Older Women: The OPACH Study
May 7Sylvia SmollerEinsteinDiastolic Blood Pressure Levels And Mortality Among Older Women: Results From The Women’s Health Initiative Long Life Study